Tuesday, June 30, 2015

IN LANKA .............

While Ravana's ministers, thinking Ravana to be indestructible, advised him to fight Rama, Ravana's brother Vibheeshan advised him to honorably return the chaste Sita to Rama and ask for his forgiveness.
Ravana, blind with arrogance, said, "Mere men and monkeys cannot scare me."
Vibheeshan said, "A kings' duty is to protect its subjects. But you, with your evil actions, will only cause Lanka's destruction. For the sake of your people ask Rama to forgive you."
The enraged Ravana told Vibheeshan to leave his kingdom at once.
With his magical powers, Vibheeshan rose in the air and flew to the place where Rama had encamped. The monkeys thought that he was Ravana, and they got ready to attack him but Bibheeshan assured them that he was a friend.
On meeting Rama, Bibheeshan told him that he would support him in this war against evil. Vigheeshan tool Rama's shelter and became an important adviser in this war.
Knowing him to be a man of virtue, Rama promised to make him the king of Lanka after dethroning Ranana.
Rama prayed before the god of Ocean and sought its advice on how to cross the ocean.
The God of Ocean said, "I cannot dry the water of the ocean to help you. But if you want to cross me, then build a bridge over me. I promise to hold the bridge firmly. Take the help of the monkey chif Nala to build te bridge."
Nala was the son of the God of Construction. Rama asked Nala to make a bridge across the ocean and help them to get to Lanka.
At once thousands of monkeys came to help Nala in construction the bridge. They started gathering tree trunks and rocks with which they would build the bridge. they wrote 'Rama' on each rock. When they threw it in the ocean, it didn't sink.
In just five days, they successfully completed this great task. Before crossing over, all the monkeys shouted, "Glory be to Rama."
When Ravana came to know that Rama and his army had reached Lanka, he sent a demon to kill them. This demon could burn anything just by looking at it.

When Vibheeshan saw this demon coming towards them, he told Rama to shoot arrows with mirrors fixed to them.

ANGAD ...............

In Lanka 1
Rama began aiming mirror arrows at the approaching demon. The demon saw his own face in t mirror arrows and was burnt to death.
After this ravana sent two spies to Rama's camp. But Vibheeshan recognized these spies who were then beaten up by Rama's army. But Rama freed them, sending a warning message to Ravana.

Rama sent Bali's son Angad to Ravan's court as his messenger.
Angad told Ravana, "O FOOLISH KING! By abducting Sita, you have called for your own destruction. Ask forgiveness at Rama's feet or else face destruction."
Angad then challenged the demons to lift his foot. Everyone tried but in vain.
Mad with anger, Ravana jumped on Angad and they fought. Angad suddenly took Ravana's crown and ran away. He then placed the crown at Rama's feet.
Then Ravana told indrajit, "Go and teach those ayodhya princes and their monkey army a lesson. I shall not be satisfied till Rama, Lakshmana and Angad are killed."
The war had begun. Indrajit, with his army of demons, attacked Rama's army.
Indrajit hid behind the clouds and shot arrows which killed and wounded many in Rama's army. He then shot an arrow at Rama and Lakshmana which shot an arrow at which tied them up with serpents.
Indrajit was happy to see their helpless plight. He knew that no one could break free the serpents' tight hold.

The elated Indrajit felt as if Ravana had already won the war.


At this crucial juncture, Garuda came to Rama and Lakshmana's rescue. Knowing vultures to be the eternal enemies of serpents, Rama thought of his vulture friend, Garuda. Feeling that someone was calling him. Garuda flew towards Lanka.
Seeing Garuda flying towards them, all the serpents slithered away. Now the Ayodhya princes were free.
Garuda came near Rama and Lakshmana and softly stroked them with his wings. Both Rama and Lakshmana were restored to life. Rama then thanked Garuda for saving his and Lakshmana's life.
Garuda assured Rama, "You shall surely slay Ravana and rescue the chaste Sita.
Seeing Rama and Lakshmana well again, their army was overjoyed.
Ravana then sent four of his best demons to fight against Rama and his army. After a violent fight, all the four demons were killed.
The news of another defeat enraged Ravana. Seeing his father's anger, Indrajit swore, "I will slay Lakshmana today!"
Indrajit safely hid behind the clouds and hit arrows at the Ayodhya princes and their army. Because he was invisible, he could not be located. No one knew how to kill him without knowing from where he shot the arrows.
Then Indrajit hit a powerful arrow at Lakshmana who fell unconscious on the ground. Sushena, the physician, came and told Rama that Lakshmana and the vast number of wounded monkeys could be revived by the Sanjeevani Booti (a herb) found on the Gandhamadhana Hill near the Himalayas.
Hanuman at once headed towards the north of India. He leaped across the vast expanse of water between Lanka and India and flew towards the Himalayas. On reaching the Gandhamadhana Hill, he could not identify the Sanjeevani Booti. So he lifted the entire mountain and carried it all the way to Lanka.
Sushena immediately identified the herb and used it on Lakshmana and the wounded monkeys. They all gained consciousness and recovered.
Rama embraced Hanuman and said, "None can equal you in strength and devotion."

When Indrajit saw Lakshmana and the army having recovered and ready to fight, he realized his limitations in killing them.


Indrajit decided to perform a sacrifice to gain more power to distract Rama and his army. Indrajit decided to trick them. Using his magical powers, Indrajit created an image of Sita. In front of Rama and his army, he cut off Sita's head.
Taking this image of Sita to be real, Rama swooned.
Vibheeshan knew about Indrajit's power to create illusion. He assured Rama that this was only a trick played by Indrajit.
He told them that Indrajit had played te trick to distract Rama and his army so that he could perform the sacrificial ceremony that would make him invincible. He further told Rama, "If Indrajit successfully completes this sacrifice, even the gods would be in danger."
In the middle of the battle, Indrajit had indeed gone to a secret place to perform the sacrificial ceremony which would make him invincible.
Vibheeshan knew about that secret place. Rama sent Lakshmana and Hanuman with Vibheeshan to disturb the sacrificial ritual and slay Indrajit.
Lakshmana attacked Indrajit before he could complete the sacrificial ceremony.
A fierce battle ensued between the two. Lakshmana shot powerful mantras, at Indrajit. Hit by that powerful arrow, Indrajit fell dead on the ground.
When Ravana came to know of his son's death, he was full of grief. But this sorrow soon gave way to anger. Now he wanted the Ayodhya princes dead at all cost. He then decided to enter the battlefield himself.
On the battlefield, he soon engaged in a fierce battle with Rama. Ravana shot powerful arrows charged with mantras at Rama, but Rama overpowered them.
Rama broke Ravana's chariot, killed his charioteer along with the horses and broke his bow and flag. Ravana himself was severely wounded.
Rama then said to Ravana, "Go Ravana! Take some rest and come to the battlefield tomorrow. If you return Sita, even now the war can end."
Ravana felt great insult at having his life spared at the hands of his enemy.

He thought that he now needed the help of his brother Kumbhakaran, who was known for his monstrous size and incomparable power.

Sunday, June 28, 2015


Wanting th boon of Indraasan, the seat of Indra, Kumbhakaran performed severe penance. When Lord Brahma appeared before him, Goddess Saraswati tied his tongue. So instead of Indrasasan, he asked for Neendraasan, the bed for sleeping. So he slept for six months.
On Ravana's orders, his demons went to wake his brother up. They beat drums, blew trumpets and pierced him with sharp instruments but even then he didn't wake up. At last they kept food around him. The aroma of the food had an effect on him, and he woke up.
First he ate the massive amount of food, and then he went to meet Ravana.
When Ravana told him what had happened, Kumbhakaran censured him for what he had done. e said that it was not right to steal away someone's wife.
Kumbhakaran knew that what Ravana had done was wrong, but his loyalty towards his country made him fight against Rama.
When he went to the battlefield, several monkeys were trampled under his feet.
He humiliated Sugreev by picking him up, as if he was a tiny, insignificant thing, and putting him on his shoulder. Sugreev clawed off his nose and ears at this insult.
Rama then hurled a divine weapon at Kumbhakaran, and he fell dead.
Ravana was shocked when he heard of Kumbhakaran's death. He could not believe that a mighty demon like Kumbhakaran had been killed by a man.
Angry at the death of his brother, he vowed that he himself would kill Rama and Lakshmana.

Kumbh and Nikubh
Ram's army was now preparing to enter the city.
With Rama's permission, the monkeys jumped over the walls of ravana's palace and set the city on fire. Ravana then called the two sons of Kumbhakaran, Kumbh and Nikubh.
When they attacked Rama's army, the scared monkey soldiers started running away. But Sugreev jumped onto the chariot of Kumbha and crushed him to death with his arms.

Hanuman fought with Nikumbh, the son of Kumbhakarana. The fight between them was a fierce one. But at last Hanuman killed Nikumbh.


The death of Kumbh and Nikumbh plunged Ravana into a state of deep despair. Ravana then called Vibheeshan's son. Tarunisen, who lived in Lanka and not with his father.
Ravana told him, "Your father has taken the side of the country's enemy, but you have been loyal towards your country. Go and destroy the enemy, and fulfill your duty towards your country."
Taunisen went to fight against Rama, thinking that dying at Rama's hands would earn him heaven.
Tarunisen fought bravely, and finally he came face to face with the Lord he worshipped.
After a fierce fight, Rama hit him with the Brahmastra. The upright Tarunisen happily died at the hands of Rama.

Rama and Ravana
All the advice Ravana got from his wife Mandodari and his family to return Sita were of no avail. Ravana, blind with arrogance and ignorance, was bent on battling with the Ayodhya princes.
Ravana wore his armor and went to the battlefield. On the battlefield, he ruthlessly killed many monkeys. He terrorized the monkeys by taking different forms; some having only heads and some having only the body. He poured rain of fire over the monkeys and killed scores of them.
Finally he came face to face with Rama. Both Rama and Ravana hurled powerful arrows at each other. Ravana first shot thirty arrows at a time to kill Rama, but Rama in return shot a powerful arrow that subdued Ravana's arrows.
Again Ravana shot an arrow that sent out millions of arrows at a time. But even this arrow couldn't defeat Rama. When Ravana shot arrows with faces of serpents, Rama shot arrows with faces of vultures.
The arrows Rama shot cut off Ravana's heads, but one by one they grew back. Rama was greatly troubled as Ravana seemed to be indestructible.

After sunset, Ravana happily went back to his camp.


After sunset both the armies went to their respective camps.
Lord Rama sat down to discuss with his generals how Ravana could be killed Ravan's death was indeed difficult to imagine as he had the power to recover any lost part of his body.
Vibheeshan told Rama, "Ravana has a boon because of which one cannot kil him. Hit at his navel if you want to kill him. This is the only way to slay him. Ravana's life is stored in his navel."
Next day many demons of Ravana's army were killed by the skillful warriors of Rama. But Ravana's chariot could not be traced for a while. 
When Rama located Ravana, he took the Brahmasatra which was given to him by sage Agatha and charged it with powerful mantras. Then he shot the powerful arrow at Ravana's navel.
Ravana fell down at once and died. At the fall of their leader, the demons surrendered.
At last Ravana was dead, and the war was over.
After the war over, arrangement were made to make Vibheeshan the king of lanka.
Rama knew that Vibheeshan would look after his kingdom well and would be a just and dangerous king.
In a grand ceremony, Vibheeshan was crowned the king of lanka. Rama and Lakshmana stayed in Lanka for the celebrations.
In this way, Rama freed Lanka from the evil rule of Ravana who had ruled untouched for a long time. Blind with arrogance over his invincibility, Ravana had imprisoned even gods and had put them in servitude.
Vishnu incarnated in a human from because Ravana had a boon that neither gods nor demons could kill him. Thinking of men and animals as too insignificant to harm him, he didn't ask for immunity against them.

After Ravana's defeat, the people of Lanka happily lived under the able administration of Vibheeshan. 


On hearing the news of her Lord's victory, the elated Sita couldn't wait any longer to reunite with her Lord.
Vibheeshan's wife came to Sita and gave her a royal attire to wear before meeting Rama.
But before she could she could meet Rama, one of Ravana's wives cursed her, "Because of you I'll have to endure a lifelong separation from my husband. I curse you that even you will be separated from your husband."
Sita was then respectfully taken to Rama in a palanquin. The monkey soldiers were eager to see Mother Sita, whose cause they had fought for.
When Sita emerged from the palanquin, she was delighted to see Rama. But Rama said, "I cannot accept you for you have spent a long time in another man's house."
Sita couldn't believe her ears. How could Rama speak to her in this manner! She said, "In body and mind I have always been yours, My Lord. But if you still doubt my purity, I have only one way to prove it. Lakshmana, kindle a fire."
Lakshmana miserably looked at his brother, hoping that he would apologies to Sita for doubting her purity. But Rama remained different.  
Lakshmana then had to abbey Sita. Addressing the God of fire, Sita said, "Agni, establish my purity by accepting me in yours flames. If I am impure, burn me to death."
Then Sita walked into the fire. All present were speechless and shocked as Sita walked into the fire.
Agni came out of the flames with Sita and said, "O Rama! Your Sita is blameless and pure. Do not ever doubt her chastity."

 Rama then turned to Sita and said, "O Sita! This trail was only to establish your purity in the minds of the people who might doubt it. As for me, I had never suspected your innocence and chastity. 


Now the fourteen years of exile were over. Rama, Sita and Lakshmana prepared to return to Ayodhya.
While Rama, Sita and Lakshmana came on an air chariot called Pushpak Viman, Hanuman flew ahead to inform Bharata of their return.
The delighted people of Ayodhya cleaned their houses and decorated the city.
Rama was to return on Amavasya, a dark moonless night. So the citizens lit earthen lamps everywhere in the kingdom.
As the Pushpak Viman landed, all the citizens were delighted to see th Ayodhya princes and Sita. Tears of joy streamed down Bharata's eyes when he asw them. He touched Rama's feet, and Rama lovingly embraced him.
all the four brother warmly embraced each other.  Then Rama, Sita and Lakshmana met their three mothers and touched their feet in respect.
Kaushalya, Sumatra and Kekai cried with happiness when they saw them.  Kekai apologized to Rama for what she had done. Rama said, "Don't apologies, Mother Kekai. You are nit to be blamed for what happened. I had to go the forest for Ravana was destined to be killed by me." 
When Rama, Lakshmana and Sita had changed into their royal clothes, Bharata said into their royal clothes, Bharata said to Rama, "Respected Brother, now that you have fulfilled father's promise and completed the fourteen years of exile, please take over as the king of Ayodhya. I have only ruled on your behalf till now. Only you are the true king of Ayodhya."
Pleased with Bharata's words, Rama agreed because he knew that it was his father's wish that he should be the ruler of Ayodhya after him.
All the people of Ayodhya rejoiced when they heard the news of Rama's coronation.
Arrangements were made for the coronation ceremony. Ayodhya was lighted and decorated again, and the poor were fed food and given clothes and money. It was a grand ceremony. Rama sat with the chaste Sita on a golden throne and was crowned the King of Ayodhya.

With Rama's coronation, the dark days of Ayodhya were over. Rama's reign, called the RamaRajya, is said to be the reign of prosperity, peace, justice and righteousness. 

Friday, June 26, 2015


Every day Ram sent few of his men to make a tour around the kingdom and know about the welfare of his people and how they felt under his reign. One evening when his men were telling him what they saw or heard in Ayodhya, a soldier quietly stood on a corner. When Rama asked him what he saw or heard, he remained quite. He was hesitant to inform the king about what he had heard. Finally he told Rama that a washer man, while castigating his infidel wife, was saying, "I am not a coward like Rama who would take back his wife even after she had lived in another man's house for an year."
Rama was shocked to hear the words of the washer man. He knew that his Sita was pure and blameless, but how would he convince the masses of Sita's purity. He had to take a step for the people of his kingdom reproached him and Sita for setting a bad example.
Next day, he called his counselors and asked them what the people of Ayodhya said about him and Sita. The counselors reluctantly informed him of the slender attached to his acceptance of Sita after get abduction by Ravana. They told him that not everyone was convinced with the fire ordeal Sita has passed as a proof of her purity.
Rama's heart was filled with grief and his eyes were filled with tears. He called his brothers and informed them about his decision to exile Sita. Both Bharata and Lakshmana tried to dissuade Rama from his decision, but he said, "My duty as a king is above my personal sorrow."
Rama them ordered Lakshmana to take Sita to the forest and leave her there. So, Sita was now to be send into a second exile. But in this exile, she was not only alone but also pregnant. She had to endure the hardships of a forest life and the affliction of staying away from her family yet again.

Weeping for her Lord, Sita sat under a tree when Saga Valmiki saw her. He took her into hides hermitage and looked after her as his daughter. In due course, Sita gave birth to twin sons who were named Lav and Kush.


Sita raised her two sons in the forest. Under the guidance of Saga Valmiki, they learnt the scriptures and the art of using various weapons. Lav and Kush grew into wise and brave boys, skilled in the art of archery and sward fighting. Valmiki also taught them the Ramayana. With their enchanting and melodious voices, Lav and Kush sang the Ramayana in Valmiki's ashram and the nearby villages.
On Saga Agastya's advice, Rama decided to perform the Ashwamedha yagna in Ayodhya to establish his sovereignty over the surrounding lands. Saga Agastya told him, "Get a white horse, worship it and leave it to wander freely. Wherever the horse goes; your soldiers should follow it. Your army would have to fight against the king who dares to stop it and challenge your sovereignty."
Rama invited renowned sages likes Vashishta, Kashyap, Valmiki, Jabali and others for the yahna. Vibheeshan and his ministers, Sugreev, Hanuman, Jambuvan and others were also invited. Rama thought that all from his family and friends would be gathered at this great yagna except for his wife Sita. So he ordered for a gold statue of Sita to be made. During the yagna, Sita's golden statue was placed by Rama's side.
Rama's horse freely moved from one land to the other. From wherever the horse passed, people came in huge crowds to welcome it and acknowledge the supremacy of Rama. But few who tried to stop it were defeated by Rama's army.
At last when the horse came to the banks of River Ganga, Lav, not knowing the significance of the horse, stopped it and tried it. Lav challenged Rama's soldiers to defect him if they wanted to free the horse. Lav, skilled in the art of warfare, severed the arms of the soldiers when they tried to free the horse.
Lakshmana was furious when he saw his injured soldiers. He then sent his most skillful generals to defect Lav. But none of these generals could withstand the powerful arrows of Lav.
After the defeat of the generals, Hanuman was sent to fight Lav. When Hanuman saw this tender looking boy, he could see in him the image of his dear Lord. But still obeying the command of Rama to destroy all who stop the horse, Hanuman uprooted a tree and threw it on Lav. But Lav shot a volley of arrows and cut the tree into pieces. Then finally Lav shot a special arrow at Hanuman, and he fell down unconscious.

When Lakshmana came to fight Lav, he shot powerful arrows at Lav which were all neutralized by him. For a short span, Lakshmana became unconscious by an arrow shot by Lav. But when he regained consciousness, he hit a deadly arrow at Lav who fell down unconscious.


When Kush came to know that his brother had been made a captive, he immediately set off the free him. Kush managed to free his brother, and the two brothers then fought against Rama's army. The valiant sons of Sita created havoc in Rama's army. After a fierce battle, Lav and Kush came out victorious. All the mighty warriors in Rama's army were either injured or held as captives.
The two brothers tied Hanuman and Jambuvan with a rope and took them to their mother. On seeing Hanuman and Jambuvan, Sita at once asked her sons to free them. When she came to know that Lav and Kush had held many of that Rama's men as captives, she ordered them to free all of them at once. Lav and Kush dutifully obeyed their mother and released them.
When Lakshmana and Sita met, tears of joy streamed down their eyes. Lakshmana touched Sita's feet and she bedded him with the affection of a long separated mother. When Valmiki told him that Lav and Kush were sons of this elder brother, he set off to Ayodhya at once. When he informed Rama that Sita was living in Valmiki's hermitage with her two valiant sons, Rama asked him to go and bring Sita back along with his sons. Sita refused to return but agreed to send her two sons.
In Ayodhya, Rama received his twin sons with honor due to the royal princes. But when he was told that Sita had refused to return, he sent a message to Valmiki through Lakshmana, asking him to come to his court along with Sita and vouch for her innocence before the people of Ayodhya. He told Lakshmana to ask Sita to return to Ayodhya and take her rightful place beside him by proving her innocence and purity.
Valmiki sent the message that he and Sita would come to the court. Rama was glad to hear his. On the appointed day, Valmiki came to the court with Sita. Before the assembled people, Valmiki said, "O Rama! These twin children are your sons, and Sita is pure and innocent. I shall give up the fruits of all the austerities I have practiced if Sita is impure."
Rama replied, "O virtuous Stage, I recognize these two children as my sons and I have no doubt about Sita's purity. But Sita must prove her innocence by taking an oath so that no doubt remains in the mind of the people of Ayodhya."

Sita, who had been as ideal wife was tired of the repeated allegations of impurity against her. Sita was sure that she never wanted to be doubted again. With folded wanted to be doubted again. With folded hands, she said, "If I have remained pure in mind and body and never thought of anyone but Rama, Mother Earth open your bosom and receive me."


At Sita's appeal, Mother Earth split open and a heavenly throne come up from within the earth. Mother Earth Stretched her arms and took Sita with her. Rama was grieved at the disappearance of Sita into the depths of the earth. On seeing Rama's grief, Lord Brahma from heaven announced, "O Rama! Don't grieve. You shall reunify with your Sita in heaven."
Rama ruled Ayodhya for many more years. When his days on earth were over, he walked into the Saryu River and was absorbed into his being as Vishnu.

The festivals of Dussehra and Diwali are closely linked with the life of Lord Rama. On the day of Dussehra, Effigies of Ravana, Kumbhakaran and Indrajit are burnt to mark the victory of good over the evil.
On Dussehra, Goddess Durga (the Goddess of Strength) killed the evil Mahishasura who had been troubling the sages, human beings and even gods for a long time. So on the day of Dusshera, Goddess Durga is worshipped.
Diwali or Deepawali is a festival of lights. On the auspicious day of Diwali, Lord Rama returned to Ayodhya after fourteen years of exile.
On Diwali, people clean their homes and illuminate their houses with earthen lamps, candles and colorful electric bulbs. This festival comes a few days after Dussehra.

Both Diwali and Dussehra have a great religious significance for the Hindus.

Thursday, June 25, 2015


The first Sikh Guru, Guru Nanak Dev ji was born on 15th April, 1969. Even as a child, Guru Nanak surprised people e with his unusual religious sensibility, his knowledge about divine things and his exceptional tendencies for contemplation. His extraordinary worldly knowledge is evident from the fact that he had learnt Hindi and Sanskrit at his tender age of seven, and Persian at the age of thirteen.
He was an extraordinary poet and a skilled musician. He wrote 947 hymns and composed various tunes in Indian classical ragas that enamored the heart and soul of all who heard them. These hymns provide the moral and spiritual guidelines for the followers of Sikhism.
It is important to note that Guru Nanak expressed his message in the spoken language of the people of North India, i.e. Punjabi, as opposed to Sanskrit, the language of the elite in which the Hindu Vedas are written. This clearly indicated that his message was intended for the masses.
Guru Nanak revolted against false rituals, superstition, caste system, asceticism, idol worship, etc. He supported the cause of women, the poor and the downtrodden, and worked towards social reformation. A major tool of this social reformation was the institution of Langar, which was established for the benefit of providing free food to the poor and needy also helped to break the boundaries of class, caste and gender.
Guru Nanak preached about a God who is the creator of all things. God who is, Supreme, All-powerful, Formless, Se lf-existent, Ever-lasting, All-knowing, Omnipotent, Infinite, Eternal, Incomprehensible, All-giver and the Absolute Truth.
Guru Nanak Devji was born on 15th April 1969 in the western Punjab village of Talwandi (now in Pakistan) about 65 KM west of Lahore.
He was born in a simple Hindu family. His family was very happy when he was born.  
His mother’s name was Tripta and his father’s name was Mehta Kalian Das. His sister’s name was Niki. So his parent’s named him Nanak. The place where he was born is today called Nanakana Sahib.
His father, called Kalu, was the Chief Patwari under the Tawandi ruler Rai Bular. His family was well to do. There was no lack of money as his father worked for the ruler.

As he grew, he became friends with children of both Hindu and the Muslim households. One of his much loved childhood’s companions was Mardana.


From the very first day, the family felt that Nanak was a very special boy. All newborn babies cry when Nanak was born, he did not cry at all.
Everyone observed his smiling and happy countenance as a baby. His parents asked the priest to make his horoscope which would tell them about his stars and what would happen to him life.
The priest told them that Nanak was born under lucky stars. He predicates that he would achieve great heights as a spiritual leader and would reform the world. He would teach the people and make them better human beings.
Nanak’s mother was a very religious lady. She taught him that Sat Kartar meant that God is the only Truth. That is why even as a child, his favorite chant was Sat Kartar.
His mother also taught him not to be selfish and to share his things with others. So whenever his mother gave him sweets, he distributed them among his friends.
Nanak would sit under a tree with his friends and sing devotional songs. Once when Nanak was singing with his friends, the Muslim ruler Rai Bular passed through that way. He sat down to listen to the wonderful religious songs sung by the children. He felt so delighted listening to them that he forgot about the word and just thought of God.
He listened till Nanak and the children finished their singing. He felt that Nanak was a blessed child. He called Nanak’s father, Kalu, and told him that he had heard Nanak sing religious songs near the pond.
He praised the way Nanak sung with so much faith. It was this faith in the Almighty that lent such sweetness to his voice.

He advised Nanak’s father to take good care of Nanak as he was a gifted child.


At the age of five, Nanak was sent to Pandit Gopaldas Pande to study Mathematics and to learn to read and write in Hindi.
Nanak was very quick in learning and very clever in understanding what was taught to him. Nanak with his inquisitive mind would ask many questions to his teacher and supervise him.
Once when his teacher Pandit Gopaldas Pande was chanting ‘OM’ Nanak interrupted his politely and asked him what it meant.
The teacher was very surprised that a five-year-old boy wanted to know the meaning of ‘OM’. He told Nanak that ‘OM’ was the name used for God.
Nanak remarked, “But my mother says that Sat Kartar is the name used for God. ‘SAT’ means Truth and Sat Kartar means that God is the only Truth.”
Then the teacher explained that God had many names out of which two names were OM and Sat Kartar.
Even at a young age, Nanak showed signs of unusual sensibility by asking questions about God and life.
One day, the teacher went and confessed to Nanak’s father, “Your son is a genius. I have taught Nanak all that I know. There is nothing left for me to teach him. Please take him somewhere else to study.
Nanak’s learning at such a young age paved the way for what he taught his followers later in his life.
He taught the people that though God was called by man by many names, like Ram, and Allah, there was only one God.
When the animosity between the Hindu and the Muslims increased, these beliefs helped. Guru Nanak’s teachings also helped those people who were suffering because of the unnatural divides constructed by men such as caste, creed, gender, etc.
Guru Nanak taught that all the people were equal and that common people could reach God themselves. They did not need priests as mediators between themselves and God.

Nanak’s father, Mehta Kalian, sent Nanak to study Muslim literature and to learn the Persian and Arabic languages. On the first day, the teacher started teaching Nanak with the first Persian alphabet ‘Alif’. Nanak at once asked him the meaning of alif. The teacher could not explain it to him.
Then Nanak explained to the teacher, ‘Alif means one God. Alif stands for Allah which is the Muslim name for God. It is the same as Om or Sat Kartar.
The teacher was very surprised. He realized that Nanak already knew a lot.
As time passed, he was shocked to see that Nanak’s knowledge knew no bounds. He took Nanak to his father and requested, “Please take back your son. I can’t teach him any more”.
Mehta Kalian asked, “Why can’t you teach my son.”
The teacher said, “Your claver child done not need to be taught anything by me.”
“Why doesn’t he need to be taught by you? What makes you say that?” Asked his father.

The teacher admitted. He knows more than I myself know. He will teach the world. What can I teach him? He knows everything.


In the olden times, there were many rituals which the priests asked the people to perform. The masses did exactly what the priests told them to do. One such ritual was the wearing of a white thread called Janeyu in a holy ceremony.
The Janeyu was joined into a long, circular thread and worn over one shoulder, across the chest, dropping at the other side.
When Nanak was nine years old, Mehta Kalian wanted to perform this sacred thread ceremony for him. He invited all his relatives and friends for a grand celebration of the ceremony

When the priest took the sacred thread to put it around Nanak, Nanak enquired, “Why are you putting this thread around me?” contd …………………..
 “It is written in our religious scriptures that the wearing of this sacred thread denotes the second birth as by birth we are all Sudras. It is a sacred ceremony which is being performed for ages by the Brahmins, Kshatriyas and Vaishyas, “Said the priest.”
“Why don’t the sudras get this Janeyu?” Asked Nanak.
“Because our religious books consider them ineligible for that,” replied the piest.
“But you just said that by birth we are all Sudras, and it is only after this ceremony that we become a Brahmin, a Kshatriya or a Vaishya. If we are all Sudras, we too must not be allowed to wear this Janeyu.” Said Nanak.
“This is what is written in the scriptures. Nanak you must not question the scriptures. It is a sin to do that,” Said the priest.
 Of cannot be a sin in using one’s intellect. If we don’t question, how will we understand?” Said Nanak.
The priest had no answer to this. He stood speechless before Nanak and the villagers. Nanak again asked, “Please tell me why people of different castes wear different janeyu? Why did not Sudras, Muslims and women wear Janeyu? Why do some people wear it and some don’t? Why do we wear a thread divides and discriminates people?”
Nanak continued, “This sacred thread doesn’t stop people from lying and committing other serious crimes. If this thread won’t make me a better person or bring me closer to God, why should I wear it? If you have a thread that will motivate me to do good deeds then make me wear that thread.
The priest evidently had no answer to Nanak’s questions.
All the guests and the villagers realized that what Nanak had said was true. There was no use of a custom that had no meaning.

After Nanak’s refusal to perform the ritual, the family members went home without the sacred thread ceremony being performed.


Nanak had both wisdom and courage to challenge such age old customs. Before performing an old custom, he would analyze its worth and wouldn’t perform it blindly.
Throughout his life, he taught people not to follow the old customs blindly. He taught them that the mechanical performance of a ritual wouldn’t make them close to God.
The priests had made many customs and rituals which were useful for the material well being of their caste, but useless for the spiritual growth of a person.
Nanak wanted such obsolete and meaningless customs to be abolished, and only those old customs be continued which were beneficial for humanity at large.
According to him only those customs should be followed which gave peace and contentment to the people and were based on the principles of love, truth and equality.
After this incident, Nanak spent much of his time in singing religious songs in the company of holy men.
When Mehta Kalian saw his son singing religious songs with holy men, he became worried. He told his wife, “Nanak has already learnt everything which can be taught here. There is nothing to occupy him. What if he turns into idler?
“We should give him something to do, so that he suggested, “I think I will tell him to look after our cattle while they are grazing.
“Yes, that is a nice idea. It will keep him busy.” Agreed Tripta. Mehta Kalian called Nanak and told him to take charge of the cattle from the very next day. As usual Nanak politely obeyed his father.
From the next day, he started taking the cattle for grazing. Dana When he took the cattle for grazing; he took his close Muslim friend Mardana with him.

Nanak would sing songs praising God and Mardana would play the rubab, a musical instrument that Nanak had lent him.


One day when Nanak took his cattle for grazing, he sat thinking about God Sat Kartar and fell asleep.
On seeing Nanak sleeping, Mardana drove the cattle into another field because he did not want Nanak to disturbed. Nanak was now alone while he was sleeping The rays of the sun were falling right on his face.
Suddenly a white serpent appeared. The ruler Rai Bular was passing from that way, and he saw the serpent near Nanak.
He thought he should go and prevent the serpent from biting Nanak. But then he saw that the serpent went and spread his hood.
The serpent lay near the Nanak’s head and held its huge hood in such a way that there was shade on Nanak’s face.
The serpent was shielding Nanak from the harsh sunlight. Rai Bular was amazed to see that the serpent was giving shade to Nanak instead of biting him.
When he went home, he told his servant, “Go quickly and find out who that boy was. That boy will either grow up to be a great king or a great saint. What I have seen today is the most unusual thing to happen.
Rai Bular could not stop himself from telling the people at his court about what he had .seen. He said, “Today I’ll tell you of a very strange thing I saw.
The courtiers were amazed to hear of a serpent protecting a sleeping boy from the harsh ray of the sun, as this was something unheard of.
Most of them agreed that this could only happen to a special person; a person of high spiritual status. Now, along with Rai Bular, the courtiers were also eager to know who that boy was.
The servant returned and told Rai Bular, “My lord, that boy is called Nanak. He is the son of Mehta Kalu, who works for you as a chief Patwari. Today when you saw him in the field, he had come there for grazing his cattle.

The servant further said that Nanak was a wise boy who believed in Sat Kartar. The king then expressed his wish to meet Nanak some day.

Tuesday, June 23, 2015


One day when Nanak took his cattle for grazing, he sat thinking about God Sat Kartar and fell asleep.
On seeing Nanak sleeping, Mardana drove the cattle into another field because he did not want Nanak to disturbed. Nanak was now alone while he was sleeping The rays of the sun were falling right on his face.
Suddenly a white serpent appeared. The ruler Rai Bular was passing from that way, and he saw the serpent near Nanak.
He thought he should go and prevent the serpent from biting Nanak. But then he saw that the serpent went and spread his hood.
The serpent lay near the Nanak’s head and held its huge hood in such a way that there was shade on Nanak’s face.
The serpent was shielding Nanak from the harsh sunlight. Rai Bular was amazed to see that the serpent was giving shade to Nanak instead of biting him.
When he went home, he told his servant, “Go quickly and find out who that boy was. That boy will either grow up to be a great king or a great saint. What I have seen today is the most unusual thing to happen.
Rai Bular could not stop himself from telling the people at his court about what he had .seen. He said, “Today I’ll tell you of a very strange thing I saw.
The courtiers were amazed to hear of a serpent protecting a sleeping boy from the harsh ray of the sun, as this was something unheard of.
Most of them agreed that this could only happen to a special person; a person of high spiritual status. Now, along with Rai Bular, the courtiers were also eager to know who that boy was.
The servant returned and told Rai Bular, “My lord, that boy is called Nanak. He is the son of Mehta Kalu, who works for you as a chief Patwari. Today when you saw him in the field, he had come there for grazing his cattle.

The servant further said that Nanak was a wise boy who believed in Sat Kartar. The king then expressed his wish to meet Nanak some day.


Nanak daily took the cattle to the fields. One day he dozed off and the cows went into the nearby fields.
The farmers were not there, and the cows ate a lot of their crops. Many birds also came and started eating the grains from the fields. When Nanak wake up and saw this, he thought of God, who had made ways for everyone to live.
Nanak and Mardana did not stop the birds from eating crops. Nanak felt that the crops belonged to God and the birds belonged to God. So why should they be stopped from eating the crops.
The farmers came and saw that the cattle and the birds were eating their crops. They were angry with Nanak and Mardana for not stopping their cattle from destroying the crops.
When the farmers started beating the cattle to drive them away from their farms, the soft-hearted Nanak could not bear to see this.
He told his friend Mardana, “Please go and stop the farmers from beating the cattle. I cannot bear to see them being beaten.”
Mardana and Nanak tried to stop the farmers from hurting the cattle, but the farmers just didn’t listen to "them; they were very angry at their loss.
One farmer shouted at Nanak, “First you let the cows spoil our fields and then you don’t let us drive the away.
Another farmer said, “You should be punished for this. I will tell Rai Bular to take money from your father for the loss we have incurred.”
Nanak replied, “You can complain to him, but don’t beat the poor and innocent cattle. They do not know that they have done something wrong.
The farmer went to Rai Bular and told him of how Mehta Kalian’s cattle had destroyed and eaten up their crops.
The farmer wanted that Nanak’s father should pay money for the loss they had to suffer because of his cattle.

Rai Bular patiently listened to the complaints of the angry farmers.


He then called Mehta Kalian and told him that he would have to pay the farmers for their loss. When Nanak came to know about this he told the farmers, “Please harvest your crop and sell it first.”
“How will that help?” Asked one of the farmers.
Nanak said, “If the money you get from the sale is less than before, then we will pay you”
Half our crops have been lost. We would hardly make any money this time, said one of the farmer.
However, Nanak convinced the farmers to harvest their crops and sell it in the market before taking money from Mehta Kalian
When they sold their crops, they realized that though a lot of their crops had been eaten by the birds and the cattle, they still had made more profit than ever before.
The farmers were very surprised at the unexpected profit they had made. They thought that this must be because of Nanak’s powers.
The farmers told Nanak him about their profit and asked forgiveness for their harsh attitude. Nanak replied, “Who am I to forgive anyone? Ask Sat Kartar for forgiveness.”
The farmers became his followers and from that day they followed all his teachings. They started trusting Nanak as a special person with qualities of a saint.
A lot of people became his followers when they saw his greatness. Many poor people too became his followers when Nanak said that even the poor should be respected. Nanak’s name and fame spread far and wide as people came to recognize him as one who enlightened the way to god through his wisdom.
Until this moment, only the priests had control over religion and God. The common man thought that they could not approach God directly. But now Nanak taught that everyone, even the low caste people, could worship God.

Nanak said that any human being could communicate with God directly. His revolutionary ideas made many people his followers, and offended others.


After this incident, Nanak became very moody and sad. He would often get lost in deep thinking.
All times, he would not take the cattle out for grazing but would just sit and think. His mother and father noticed this change in Nanak. One day his parents tried to get him out of his sad and contemplative mood.
When he didn’t cheer up, his parents got more worried and thought that something had happened to Nanak. They called a doctor to check Nanak. When the doctor came, Nanak told him, “You will not be able to help me.”
Let me try, “Said the doctor.”
Nanak refused, “You won’t understand my pain. It is not the body, it’s my mind. You can go.”
The doctor asked, “If I go, who will help you?”
Nanak calmly said, “Whoever has given me the pain will get me out of this too.”
Slowly he nodded his head and stated, "Yes I have got the cure now.”
His father asked, “What is it Nanak?
Nanak replied with conviction, “I should leave everything in the hands of God.”
Then he smiled as if he had got the answer and the cure to his problem.
Soon he become normal again and started cheerful.
His parents realized that their son was not an ordinary boy. He was special and was among the few who meditate and contemplate on thinking beyond the world. But because Nanak was their only son, they would often get worried about his future.

His mother was patient and understanding towards him and accepted Nanak’s meditative mood as a sign of his connection with God.